Articles authored by Archer, David

Research Roundup

Regenerated Freirean Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques (REFLECT) is an approach to adult literacy programmes which borrows from Paolo Freire's `active dialogue' method and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques. Developed by ACTIONAID, the authors describe and assess the use of REFLECT in pilot studies in Uganda and in Bangladesh, providing very positive feedback on this learning methodology; they argue that it allows for a synthesis of empowerment and literacy, although its flexibility - whether it will work in urban areas, with refugees etc - needs to be tested.


This short contribution provides a brief history, touching on some of the key trends and turning points in ActionAid's education work, and it documents the evolution of the relationship between ActionAid and governments. The story of ActionAid is illustrative in many ways of wider changes in the NGO sector since the early 1970s.