Articles authored by Carroll, Thomas


Private development organisations have emerged rapidly and forcefully in Peru, amid a turbulent national context of change and acute social and economic instability over the last two decades. While no official statistics exist on the number of such organisations (there is no single entity that oversees or registers their activity), independent studies and surveys indicate that almost 350 groups of diverse objectives and coverage, and currently operating throughout the country.

This article examines the potential of beekeeping, as an appropriate livelihood strategy for smallholder farm households using the sustainable livelihoods framework. A study undertaken over a six-year period (2004–9) with over 300 small-scale farmers in Kenya's Rift Valley Province found that despite excellent revenue earning potential, honey yields and returns remain comparatively low. Compared to maize, the staple crop of most Kenyan farmers, it was found that a typical ten-hive enterprise generated earnings equivalent to 0.86ha of maize. The article emphasises the need to build human capital for beekeeping rather than just promoting modern beehives.

The full article is available here: