Articles authored by Hale, Angela


World trade is increasingly conditioned by the rules of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In the case of the garment industry this means the phasing out of the Multifibre Arrangement, which has dominated trade in textiles and garments since 1974. This phase-out is seen as benefiting developing countries and criticism focuses on the manner in which the USA and Europe are holding up the process. However it is important to look at who exactly will gain or lose. Not all poor countries will benefit.
Concern about working conditions in a global supply chain has brought unions and NGOs in the North around the same table. Collaborative initiatives include campaigns such as the European-wide Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) and ethical trade forums, like the UK Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI). Relationships have not always been easy. Unions and NGOs have different ways of working, and there have been insensitivities on both sides.