Articles authored by Singh, Naresh


A review is presented of the different principles and characteristics embodied in the two development philosophies (as briefly differentiated in the phrases 'top-down approach', and the 'bottom-up', or people-centered approach). Evaluation is discussed in terms of the two approaches: the subjective and the objective. Each one is examined, and whether they are mutually exclusive or compatible is discussed, and indeed whether evaluating project outcomes is worthwhile.