The effectiveness of NGO campaigning: lessons from practice

This article looks at the lessons learned in reviewing two long-running international campaigns, one to promote breastfeeding in Ghana, and the other against the use of child labour in the carpet industry in India. In particular, it focuses on understanding the nature of campaigns and what makes them effective. It asserts that campaigns are not linear or mechanistic, but need to be understood as passing through various stages and requiring different kinds of action at different levels and at different times. The variety of work and skills thus required make it vital that the various organisations involved collaborate with each other. In particular, grassroots mobilisation has a role in bringing about sustained policy change that is often forgotten. This article is freely available as a chapter in Development and Advocacy.